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Year : 2021  |  Volume : 4  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 111-115

Is the arterial echo-Doppler a useful tool in the detection of subclinical arteriosclerosis?

Faculty of Medical Sciences - Department of Normal Anatomy, UnViMe, San Luis, Argentina

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Jorge Rios
UnViMe, San Luis
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/2589-9686.333002

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Introduction: Arteriosclerosis has its history since ancient times, rare at that time due to the high mortality from infectious diseases. It arises with changes in dietary habits and the aging of the population. The disease is characterized by being an inflammatory chronic process, generalized and progressive, with multiple risk factors that converge at the onset of itself. However, it is important to bear in mind that 20%–30% of patients lack risk factors and debut with cardiovascular and cerebrovascular accidents. OBJECTIVES: To determine in asymptomatic patients without previous atherothrombotic events, with risk factors and without them, the presence of atheroma in the carotid and iliofemoral sectors, with the use of Echo Doppler Color. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients were included between January and December 2019, without previous atherothrombotic events, with and without risk factors. All were studied with Echo Doppler color with transverse and longitudinal sections in the carotid and iliofemoral sectors. RESULTS: In this period, 426 patients were studied, 303 women with an age range of 37–84 with an average of 59.86 years old, 123 men with an age range of 40–92 with an average of 62.42 years old. The number of women with risk factors was 129 (42.62%), of which 41 (32.13%) had subclinical arteriosclerosis affectations and of the 174 women without risk factors, no subclinical arteriosclerosis was found. In men, the factors of present risk were in 55 (45.23%) patients, all of whom had arteriosclerosis subclinical and 25 (20.40%) patients had arteriosclerosis without risk factors. The presence of subclinical arteriosclerosis was 65.63% in men. The prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors according to sex were: Arterial hypertension (M 48%, H 41%), diabetes (M 9%, H 11%), dyslipidemia (M 43%, H 48.5%), and smoking (M 21%, H 25%). The region more affected was the carotid in both men and women, with a slight predominance of single-site impact versus multiple sites. CONCLUSION: According to the results obtained, we can say that risk factors can predict events, but the use of Doppler ultrasound to detect atheromas increases the possibility of finding subclinical arteriosclerosis, which allows patients to be reclassified and thus intensify preventive measures.

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